– The role of the state, security institutions and society in counterterrorism
When we talk about the process of opposing violent extremism and terrorism and the most important measures that the society, the state and its institutions must take in the fight against these forms of threats to security, such a process must include prevention (prevention measures), repression, and the process of derading persons who have been radicalized or are in the process of radicalization, but have not yet participated in terrorist activities, as well as those who have been convicted of the criminal offense of Terrorism and are found to serve prison sentences in penal correctional institutions and institutions). Such a fight is a complex and lengthy process that should show its positive results in the long-term projections of the fight against terrorism and violent extremism.
Terrorism can not be overcome only by military action, legal provisions and the intelligence action of security agencies (intelligence intelligence), which is also conveyed in Security Council resolution 2178 on the fight against terrorism, it is certain that these activities of security entities are very important, but if they are not In coordination with other activities of the state and institutions involved in the process of preventive action, positive results can very easily be left out, and such a struggle turns out to be ineffective. In the realization of this kind of project, the entire social community must be actively involved with all its potentials and capacities, because if it were possible for such a process to lead only security subjects based on their activities on the use of reprisals and other forms of retribution directed against radical extremist groups, relying solely on these kinds of responses and reactions then there would be nothing from the positive results in such a strategic project and there would be a counter-effect and an even faster process of radicalization and the extinction of individuals, groups, and collectivities that would have a new conflict as a final result which would not bring anybody good to anyone in the Western Balkans.
PREVENTION AND USE OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES encompasses a wide range of measures and procedures that the social community, in coordination with state institutions, must continuously undertake in order to pre-empt and reduce the possibility of the appearance of radicalism, violent extremism and terrorism. Such a process starts from the earliest age in the family, which as such should represent the “foundation” and the “educational regulator”, which is at the same time one of the main factors of the socialization of the individual in which he teaches and educates in the spirit of tolerance, respect for diversity. with him emotional stability and other forms of moral life and socially acceptable behavior. Sigmund Freud, a physician and psychiatrist (the founder of psychoanalysis), spoke about the importance of the family and its influence on the development of personality, who pointed out that the first five years of life were crucial for the development of personality, and that omissions were made in that period is irreparable.
The next link in the chain, without which the process of preventing violent extremism and terrorism in long-term strategic projections to combat them, is unimaginable is the impact of educational institutions (in the focus of primary and secondary education), whereby priority is given to developing certain educational programs and pupil workshops in which pupils learn multiculturalism, respect for differences, tolerance, while hate speech and other destructive phenomena will “diminish” even in the initial phase of manifestation (through a curriculum educating systematically and permanently educating young people and pointing them to the harmfulness and frustration of such phenomena).
In the process of the prevention of violent extremism and terrorism, especially when it comes to religiously funded terrorism, religious communities have a crucial role and role in this particular case, the “Islamic Religious Community”, whose role both in the process of prevention and in the process of deradikalization is irreplaceable and crucial, the role and participation of Islamic religious leaders in such an important project for security at all levels has no positive results in suppressing radicalism and religious extremism, the Islamic religious community must be the institution responsible for the religious education of Islamic believers (from basic religious schools to medresa to public tribunes and other appearances in public and in front of believers), any degradation and the collapse of the authority of such a religious organization opens the way for the extremist action of certain groups that, under the auspices of illegal paradigms, spread violent terrorist ideology and religious fanatism for which responsibility is not borne the official Islamic religious community, the development of interreligious dialogue, mutual respect and appreciation of mutual differences are the basic elements and preconditions for building a healthy society based on multiculturalism and religious ecumenism.
The role of the professional public and the academic community is also very important in the process of the prevention of violent extremism and terrorism, expert analysis, assessment of future events and the development of security assessments using relevant scientific methods, as well as active participation in the development of national strategies for the fight against terrorism and violent extremism. of exceptional importance in the prevention of these socially dangerous phenomena (all countries in the Western Balkans region have adopted strategic documents detailing the measures and actions of the state and the entire community in the fight against terrorism and violent extremism) actively participated in the drafting of these projects of national importance professional public and academic community, proposing adequate solutions and measures based on professional and scientific analyzes and bases.
The role and active participation of local self-governments are also crucial for a successful process of preventing such socially negative phenomena, creating better living conditions and a more favorable climate for the development of the economy, with certain social groups at risk of potential radicalization and appropriation of extremist ideologies Opportunities and a better economic and social perspective, this type of prevention can only show positive results in cases of persons who are “hovering” or who have not yet firmly built and built extremist attitudes and radical religious ideology, while in the case of persons who made a firm decision to accept a radical extremist ideology and to approach such militia or other forms of preventive action in jihadist terrorist formations in the Middle East in most cases does not show positive results, then the phase of the repressive the operation of the subjects of security, which will be discussed in more detail below in the text dealing with this phase of counterterrorism.
Prevention also implies the conduct of certain anti-terrorist actions in which members of extremist structures are preventively arrested and deprived of their liberty, such police actions can not be exclusively marked as the application of repressive measures, because this way of acting has its preventive character and influence, in this way, members of extremist structures are sent the message that nobody is stronger than the state, and the goal of the action itself is to task, in addition to eliminating potential security threats, and the very important role of the deterrence of other members of the extremist group from further criminal or terrorist activity or other forms of similar organization. In the past few years several such police actions have been carried out in the region, the most important police actions of this kind were carried out on the territory of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and they were codenamed “Svjetlost”, “Damask” and “Ruben” were arrested in them. movements that are linked to terrorist activities (organization and recruitment of BiH citizens to go to the battlefields in Syria and Iraq and to join the armed formations of terrorist organizations “Islamic State” and “Al Qaeda” (“Džabhat al Nusra”).
The role of legislative and judicial authorities is also important in the process of preventing violent extremism and terrorism, by adopting more stringent laws that discriminate against activities that are related to terrorism and other extremist activities (incitement, recruitment, organization, financing of terrorism and terrorist activities, illegal possession of weapons, trafficking in human beings, illegal crossing of the state border, falsification of travel documents and personal documents, departure to the battlefield). The laws sanctioning such activities have been brought in all the countries of the Western Balkans region, especially when it comes to sanctioning the departure to the side of the battlefield and joining the foreign armed formations for which the law provides for many years of imprisonment, so that such legal measures will show the effect and a positive result in prevention violent extremism and terrorism, they must be strictly enforced, we will not find ourselves in a situation such as, for example, the cases from the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina where people who participated in the wars in Syria and Iraq on the side of terrorist Islamic formations were buying their innocence and avoided prosecution by paying money “penalties” where such persons have not been prosecuted, although it has been undeniably established for them that they have committed one of these activities that the law criminalizes. This behavior of state structures and the judiciary will not achieve a “deterrent effect”, which is essentially the primary task of such a law in the process of prevention and suppression of violent extremism and terrorism!
ACTIVITIES OF THE SECURITY ENTITY (intelligence security apparatus) and the application of repressive measures and procedures in the fight against terrorism and violent extremism occur at the second stage when prevention measures did not eliminate the security threat from terrorist activity, then the disposal of adequate intelligence on the basis of which is of great importance and importance security actors act, such a process involves the detection, mapping, and neutralization of terrorist infrastructure, those who are considered to pose a potential security threat are placed under operational measures (observation, monitoring, interception and other special investigative actions, until the physical elimination of terrorists if all other procedures are inefficient and exhausted). Mapping involves the identification of both persons associated with terrorist activities and centers that serve for radicalization and extremist action, such sources of security threats should be neutralized in the shortest possible time.
When discussing the effective functioning of the intelligence security apparatus, the most important is the analysis and assessment of the security threat, in order for this segment to be professionally worked on such tasks, professional and professional persons with adequate knowledge and skills in the field of security, the fight against terrorism and other scientific the areas that can make such a fight more efficient, that is why the personnel policy in security agencies is very important, putting inexperienced people in responsible positions in the security system can be just as dangerous as the security threat against which the security system is struggling. When prosecuting and prosecuting persons who are accused of terrorism, there must be adequate legal regulations that sanction such activities, high court judgments and strict sanctions are part of repressive measures in the fight against terrorism and violent extremism.
DERADICALIZATION implies programs that are generally directed against persons who have become radical with the aim of their reintegration into society or at least their deterrence from violence. Deradicization is not a process that can be carried out by security entities, but it requires the participation of the entire community, and primarily the Islamic Religious Community, without whose active participation there is no efficient and effective deradization. Special attention should be paid to persons who are serving prison sentences (persons who are convicted for the criminal offense of Terrorism) are often closed centers of radicalization, which are confirmed by the examples of Jasarevic, Ikanovic, Bektasevic, Rustempasic, the last three of whom after the serving of prison sentences were released with even more radical and extreme religious attitudes and continued terrorist activities and propaganda operation. The essential goal of deradikalization is rehabilitation and reintegration of persons who have adopted extremist attitudes and terrorist ideology and their reintegration into normal social trends.
About other topics related to this topic in the following posts.
Author: Dragan Ogrizovic